- Kinds of adverbs
There are very many kinds of adverbs.
- Adverbs of time
Adverbs of time answer the question ‘When?’. Examples are: today, yesterday, now, before, daily, already, since, ago, never etc.
- I met him yesterday.
- His father died two years ago.
- I have seen him before.
- They have already come.
- We will have to start now.
- Adverbs of frequency
Adverbs of frequency answer the question ‘How often?’ Examples are: often, always, once, never, again, seldom, frequently etc.
- We seldom go out on Sundays.
- I have seen him only once.
- He called again this morning.
- We must always try to do our best.
- Adverbs of place
Adverbs of place answer the question ‘Where?’. Examples are: here, there, up, down, everywhere, out, in etc.
- She sat down.
- He looked up.
- I searched for him everywhere.
- Come in.
- Adverbs of manner
Adverbs of manner answer the question ‘How?’ or ‘In what manner?’ Note that this class includes nearly all those adverbs ending in -ly. Examples are: quickly, carefully, sweetly, clearly, bravely, beautifully, well, fast etc.
- The soldiers fought bravely.
- This essay is well written.
- She walked slowly.
- The baby slept soundly.
- Adverbs of degree or quantity
Adverbs of degree answer the question ‘How much?’ or ‘In what degree?’ or ‘To what extent?’ Examples are: very, too, fully, quite, rather, enough, any, partly, almost, utterly, as, entirely etc.
- That was very tragic.
- I have almost finished.
- He was rather busy.
- Is he any good?
- You are partly right.
- You are entirely wrong.
- Adverbs of reason
Adverbs of reason answer the question ‘Why?’ Examples are: therefore, hence, consequently etc.
- Consequently he refused to go.
- Therefore they decided to boycott the meeting.
- He is hence unable to refute the charge.
- Adverbs of affirmation or negation
Examples are: surely, certainly, not, probably, indeed etc.
- You are certainly right.
- I am not going.
- He is a fool indeed.
- Interrogative adverbs
Adverbs which are used for asking questions are called interrogative adverbs. Examples are: when, where, how, why etc.
- When will you go to New York? (Interrogative adverb of time)
- How long will you stay here? (Interrogative adverb of time)
- Where are my keys? (Interrogative adverb of place)
- How often does the committee meet? (Interrogative adverb of number)
- How did he behave? (Interrogative adverb of manner)
- How far did he go? (Interrogative adverb of quantity)
- Why did you resign? (Interrogative adverb of reason)
- Relative adverbs
Read the following sentences:
Do you know the place where the meeting will be held?
In this sentence, where is an adverb as it modifies the verb will be held. Where is also a relative as it connects the two clauses of the sentence and at the same time refers back to its antecedent, ‘place’. ‘Where’ is therefore called a relative adverb. Note that a relative adverb connects an adjective clause to the main clause.